Their 18 artillery pieces stood on a hill called Galgenberg, facing the hostile armies. They all united to change the prevailing political system. This caused an increase in land but a shortage of labourers. Having taken the count as their prisoner, the peasants took their revenge a step further: They forced him, and approximately 70 other nobles who had taken refuge with him, to run the gauntlet of pikes, a popular form of execution among the landsknechts. Many peasants found themselves forced to hand over more of their resources to the elite or perform more unpaid labor for their lords. This was the Radical or Popular Reformation, an effort by radicals, based on the Bible to live by God's Word and usually contrary to Martin Luther’s teachings. Over 100,000 peasants died and the misery of those who remained worsened. The German Peasants, especially the wealthier groups, wanted to safeguard a hard-earned prosperity that they believed was under threat … These individuals had a great deal to lose. He seemed to have even acquiesced in developing churches in German states that were often largely controlled by the local elite. Using sources such as letters, journals, religious tracts, city and town records, demographic information, family and kinship developments, historians challenged long-held assumptions about German peasants and the authoritarian tradition. He was deposed and replaced by a knight, Götz von Berlichingen, who was subsequently elected as supreme commander of the band. The peasants were caught off-guard and fled in panic to the town, followed and continuously attacked by the public forces. Peasants’ War, (1524–25) peasant uprising in Germany. He could not support the Peasant War because it broke the peace, an evil he thought greater than the evils the peasants were rebelling against. Like the preceding Bundschuh movement and the Hussite Wars, the war consisted of a series of both economic and religious revolts in which peasants and farmers, often supported by Anabaptist clergy, took the lead. Martin Luther, however, condemned the revolt, thus contributing to its eventual defeat. The Twelve Articles is the statement of principles declaring the peasants' demands of the Swabian League during the German Peasants' War of 1525. They used the wagon fort effectively, a tactic that had been mastered in the Hussite Wars of the previous century. Many of the religious sects that emerged after the Peasants War were millenarian movements. In this way, it could be explained as a conservative and traditional effort to recover lost ground. Historians disagree on the nature of the revolt and its causes, whether it grew out of the emerging religious controversy centered on Martin Luther; whether a wealthy tier of peasants saw their wealth and rights slipping away, and sought to re-inscribe them in the fabric of society; or whether it was peasant resistance to the emergence of a modernizing, centralizing political state. Historians disagree on the nature of the revolt and its causes, whether it grew out of the emerging religious controversy centered on Luther; whether a wealthy tier of peasants saw their own wealth and rights slipping away, and sought to weave them into the legal, social and religious fabric of society; or whether peasants objected to the emergence of a modernizing, centralizing nation state. [24], On 6 March 1525, some 50 representatives of the Upper Swabian Peasants Haufen (troops)—the Baltringer Haufen, the Allgäuer Haufen, and the Lake Constance Haufen (Seehaufen)—met in Memmingen to agree to a common cause against the Swabian League. The Peasants' Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion or Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a major event in the history of England.The names of some of its leaders, John Ball, Wat Tyler and Jack Straw, are still familiar even though very little is actually known about these individuals. Clerical ignorance and the abuses of simony and pluralism (holding several offices at once) were rampant. Guild taxes were exacted. The time of unrest that took place in The German states after 1848 was foreshadowed by widening political, economic, and social division with in each state. In 1381, a vast rebel army ransacked the Tower of London, burned the palaces and assassinated government officials. The revolt was put down. The underlying cause of the war was economic change. As the rebellion expanded many nobles had trouble sending troops to the league armies because they had to combat rebel groups in their own lands. Princes often attempted to force their freer peasants into serfdom by increasing taxes and introducing Roman civil law. As such they were experienced, well-equipped, well-trained and of good morale. Peasants' War, 1524–26, rising of the German peasants and the poorer classes of the towns, particularly in Franconia, Swabia, and Thuringia. They were quite mobile, but they also had drawbacks: they required a fairly large area of flat terrain and they were not ideal for offense. [41], During the 1524 harvest, in Stühlingen, south of the Black Forest, the Countess of Lupfen ordered serfs to collect snail shells for use as thread spools after a series of difficult harvests. The 14th century was a terrible era to be alive: the Great Famine of 1315 to 1317 killed perhaps 10% of Northern Europe, and the Black Death, an even greater natural disaster, claimed between 1/3 and 1/2 of the continent’s population at the end of the 1340s and in later outbreaks in the 1360s. The peasants resisted at times fiercely and circled wagons to defend themselves, but the army of the nobles prevailed Miller, p. 117. The revolt incorporated some principles and rhetoric from the emerging Protestant Reformation, through which the peasants sought influence and freedom. The council rejected many of the demands. [15] Thus, their dominance over serfs was more restricted. [a] The league headquarters was in Ulm, and command was exercised through a war council which decided the troop contingents to be levied from each member. 1. Labor shortages in the last half of the 14th century had allowed peasants to sell their labor for a higher price; food and goods shortages had allowed them to sell their products for a higher price as well. liberation The long-entrenched __________ system of the medieval church had permitted important ecclesiastical posts to be sold to the highest bidders. At the peak of the insurrection in 1525, his position shifted completely to support of the rulers of the secular principalities and their Roman Catholic allies. Nevertheless, the peasants continued to revolt. There were many reasons for the outbreak. The companies also had a sergeant or feldweibel, and squadron leaders called rottmeister, or masters of the rotte. Müntzer's role in the Peasant War has been the subject of considerable controversy, some arguing that he had no influence at all, others that he was the sole inspirer of the uprising. After the peasants took control of Freiburg in Breisgau, Hans Müller took some of the group to assist in the siege at Radolfzell. The Peasant War of 1524-1527 was crucial in the development of the Reformation. At the time of the Peasants' War, Charles V, King of Spain, held the position of Holy Roman Emperor (elected in 1519). This League was a military alliance, and it formed its own army. The Protestant Churches were to support the existing social order, which was hierarchal and socially conservative. Inspired by changes brought by the Reformation, peasants in western and southern Germany invoked divine law to demand agrarian rights and freedom from oppression by nobles and landlords. However, the Knights' Revolt was not fundamentally religious. Müntzer was captured, tortured and executed at Mühlhausen on 27 May. The rest of the peasants returned to their farms. [46] The Twelve Articles were printed over 25,000 times in the next two months, and quickly spread throughout Germany, an example of how modernization came to the aid of the rebels. The lord had the right to use his peasants' land as he wished; the peasant could do nothing but watch as his crops were destroyed by wild game and by nobles galloping across his fields in the course of chivalric hunts. [60] Using Karl Marx's concept of historical materialism, Engels portrayed the events of 1524–1525 as prefiguring the 1848 Revolution. This trend continued during the Peasant War and in its aftermath. Although they only managed to hold the allegiance of small numbers of the European population, they were enormously influential, especially in America.[19]. The German peasant rebellion of 1525 wasn't the only uprising in Central Europe: the Jacquerie in France in 1356-1358, the Peasant's revolt of 1381 in England, the Rebellion of the Remences in Spain in 1462 and 1485 and many others, are other manifestations of the social struggles in Medieval Europe. The national aspect of the Peasants' Revolt was also utilised by the Nazis. The 12 Articles demanded much of the old feudal system's dismantling and the rollback of many of the new laws. In contrast, Martin Luther and other Magisterial Reformers condemned it and clearly sided with the nobles. Some of the articles also demanded that ‘tithes’ or payments to the church be only spent locally and that local communities had a greater role in their churches' governing. 4. [52], The massacre at Weinsberg was also too much for Luther; this is the deed that drew his ire in Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants in which he castigated peasants for unspeakable crimes, not only for the murder of the nobles at Weinsberg, but also for the impertinence of their revolt. On the left stood a wood, and on their right, a stream and marshland; behind them, they had erected a wagon fortress, and they were armed with arquebuses and some light artillery pieces. Instead the insurgents arranged a ceasefire and withdrew into a wagon fort. Despite being repressed, these sects and movements spread all over Europe. The democratic nature of their movement left them without a command structure and they lacked artillery and cavalry. Of the 4,000 or so peasants who had manned the fortified position, 2,000 were able to reach the town of Leipheim itself, taking their wounded with them in carts. This was no doubt done out of expediency as Luther knew that his reform movement could only survive with the elite's support. For example, an SS cavalry division (the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer) was named after Florian Geyer, a knight who led a peasant unit known as the Black Company. Friedrich Engels wrote The Peasant War in Germany (1850), which opened up the issue of the early stages of German capitalism on later bourgeois "civil society" at the level of peasant economies. These conditions created problems and confusion for the nobles as they tried to gather together forces large enough to put down the revolts. Why did the Reformation fail in Renaissance Italy? In the course of their march, they burned down the Wildenburg castle, a contravention of the Articles of War to which the band had agreed. (Document 11 Count Wilhelm von Henneberg) Drastic measures taken by the peasants struck the economy and honor of the upper classes. The clergy in 1525 were the intellectuals of their time. They later captured and executed Thomas Muntzer. However, despite the secular nature of nineteenth century humanism, three centuries earlier Renaissance humanism had still been strongly connected with the Church: its proponents had attended Church schools. An imperial knight and experienced soldier, although he had a relatively small force himself, he easily defeated the peasants. They used these traditional entitlements to seize more of the peasants’ wealth through taxes and dues.[3]. The justice system, operated by the clergy or wealthy burgher and patrician jurists, gave the peasant no redress. Local rebellions became usual for Central Europe since 1400, including such famous ones as Hussite wars (1420-1434), series of revolts known as the Bundschuh movement (circa 1440-1530), Hungarian peasants revolt (1514) and s number of minor disorders. The 12 Articles were published and spread throughout Germany, which inspired more peasants to take up arms. In the sixteenth century, many parts of Europe had common political links within the Holy Roman Empire, a decentralized entity in which the Holy Roman Emperor himself had little authority outside of his own dynastic lands, which covered only a small fraction of the whole. During the Knights' Revolt the "knights", the lesser landholders of the Rhineland in western Germany, rose up in rebellion in 1522–1523. In the following days, a larger number of insurgents gathered in the fields around the town. Which of the following story summaries is most similar to a myth? [13] Accordingly, princes tended to gain economically from the ruination of the lesser nobility, by acquiring their estates. The fighting was at its height in the middle of 1525. In 1994, a mass grave was discovered near Leipheim; linked by coins to the time period, archaeologists discovered that most of the occupants had died of head wounds (. A new economic interpretation arose in the 1950s and 1960s. Once they had received their concessions, they sided with the great nobles. d. A god teaches humans how to make fire. Luther’s ideas had definitely been interpreted by some rebels and Protestant Pastors such as Muntzer as validating radical change in society. Despite this union, the strength of their force was relatively small. The detached troops encountered a separate group of 1,200 peasants engaged in local requisitions, and entered into combat, dispersing them and taking 250 prisoners. When a peasant wished to marry, he not only needed the lord's permission but had to pay a tax. 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This position alienated the lesser nobles, but shored up his position with the burghers. Wagon forts could be erected and dismantled quickly. This was followed by his main force; when the peasants saw the size of his main force—his entire force was 1,500 horse, 7,000-foot, and 18 field guns—they began an orderly retreat. German Peasant Revolt DBQ The German peasants of the 1524-1526 revolts were caused by interpretations of Lutheran ideals, the peasants desires to break free from serfdom, and the general search for equality in the eyes of god. He had previously believed that the church should be kept separate from the secular power, which is inherently corrupt and corrupting.[14]. The peasants assaulted and captured the castle of Weinsberg; most of its own soldiers were on duty in Italy, and it had little protection. It was often led by members of the minor nobility and leading peasants in their communities. [7] It seemed that members of the lesser nobility and the urban elite would side with the peasants and the Imperial government, and the great nobles were forced to make concessions to these groups. In addition to this democratic construct, each band had a hierarchy of leaders including a supreme commander and a marshal (schultheiss), who maintained law and order. The German Peasants Revolt took place in the lands of the Holy Roman Empire. Luther was also genuinely appalled by the behavior of the peasants. Each company was commanded by a captain and had its own fähnrich, or ensign, who carried the company's standard (its ensign). The German elite could also use Roman law, which was increasingly popular in German lands, to enforce their rights. In this tract, Luther instructed the German Nobility to strike down the peasants as one would kill a mad dog. The Reformation had always been dependent on the support of the elite. The gemein had its own leader (schultheiss), and a provost officer who policed the ranks and maintained order. On 14 May, they warded off smaller feints of the Hesse and Brunswick troops, but failed to reap the benefits from their success. A variety of local studies showed that participation was not as broad based as formerly thought. By 1525, the uprisings in the Black Forest, the Breisgau, Hegau, Sundgau, and Alsace alone required a substantial muster of 3,000-foot and 300 horse soldiers. The peasant’s revolt was the result of the reformation in which Martin Luther and others went against the religion and traditions of the Catholic Church. He was particular appalled by the massacre at the castle of Weinsberg when peasant rebels had massacred some nobles and the garrison of a castle. He interpreted the uprising's causes as essentially political, and secondarily economic: the assertions by princely landlords of control over the peasantry through new taxes and the modification of old ones, and the creation of servitude backed up by princely law. The local elite used their own forces and urban militias to try and quell the disturbances. [26], The league relied on the armored cavalry of the nobility for the bulk of its strength; the league had both heavy cavalry and light cavalry, (rennfahne), which served as a vanguard. In this era of rapid change, modernizing princes tended to align with clergy burghers against the lesser nobility and peasants. [53], On 29 April the peasant protests in Thuringia culminated in open revolt. [62] This led both Marx and Engels to conclude that the communist revolution, when it occurred, would be led not by a peasant army but by an urban proletariat. After the Peasant War, Martin Luther was seen as leading a religious movement that was more concerned with the elite than the ordinary people. [47], Kempten im Allgäu was an important city in the Allgäu, a region in what became Bavaria, near the borders with Württemberg and Austria. In this work, he used strong language to call for the extermination of the rebels who had ‘’become the worst blasphemers of God and slanderers of his holy name.” [10] Luther, under the influence of St Augustine, believed that humanity would be deprived and prone to evil.[11]. [citation needed], The Swabian League fielded an army commanded by Georg, Truchsess von Waldburg, later known as "Bauernjörg" for his role in the suppression of the revolt. [39][40], Friedrich Engels interpreted the war as a case in which an emerging proletariat (the urban class) failed to assert a sense of its own autonomy in the face of princely power and left the rural classes to their fate. The Revolt reinforced Luther’s innate conservatism. The so-called Book of One Hundred Chapters, for example, written between 1501 and 1513, promoted religious and economic freedom, attacking the governing establishment and displaying pride in the virtuous peasant. Peasants suffered from limited funding and lacked the training and organisational capabilities of professional armies. [23] F. Engels cites: "To the call of Luther of rebellion against the Church, two political uprisings responded, first, the one of lower nobility, headed by Franz von Sickingen in 1523, and then, the great peasant's war, in 1525; both were crushed, because, mainly, of the indecisiveness of the party having most interest in the fight, the urban bourgeoisie". By September 1525 all fighting and punitive action had ended. On 16 February 1525, 25 villages belonging to the city of Memmingen rebelled, demanding of the magistrates (city council) improvements in their economic condition and the general political situation. The knights revolted against the new money order, which was squeezing them out of existence. [1] The Revolt involved peasants and merchants, artisans, members of the minor nobility, and Protestant pastors. Historians have tended to categorize it either as an expression of economic problems, or as a theological/political statement against the constraints of feudal society. To judge from his writings of 1523 and 1524, it was by no means inevitable that Müntzer would take the road of social revolution. Join now. [30] Wagons were chained together in a suitable defensive location, with cavalry and draft animals placed in the center. The patricians consisted of wealthy families who sat alone in the town councils and held all the administrative offices. Accordingly, the harshness of the lesser nobles' treatment of the peasantry provided the immediate cause of the uprising. Other demands of the Twelve Articles included the abolition of serfdom, death tolls, and the exclusion from fishing and hunting rights; restoration of the forests, pastures, and privileges withdrawn from the community and individual peasants by the nobility; and a restriction on excessive statute labor, taxes and rents. In the Hussite Wars, artillery was usually placed in the center on raised mounds of earth that allowed them to fire over the wagons. Blickle and his students later modified their ideas about peasant wealth. Parliament gave up trying to control wages, feudal system broke down, peasants got more respect. The revolt was "suppressed by both Catholic and Lutheran princes who were satisfied to cooperate against a common danger". The Revolt of the Peasants in England in 1381. In Swabia, the peasants published the 12 Articles, and these later were adopted by other rebels elsewhere and became the manifesto of the movement. [12], The innovations in military technology of the Late Medieval period began to render the lesser nobility (the knights) militarily obsolete. Many Protestant pastors, such as Thomas Muntzer and they believed that feudalism and the existing social order could be changed and that God did not ordain it but only designed by the elite for their own advantage and gain. He wrote, "Three centuries have passed and many a thing has changed; still the Peasant War is not so impossibly far removed from our present struggle, and the opponents who have to be fought are essentially the same. This prompted him to write the polemic ‘Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants’. Others sought to escape across the Danube, and 400 drowned there. ", Historian Roland Bainton saw the revolt as a struggle that began as an upheaval immersed in the rhetoric of Luther's Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church but which really was impelled far beyond the narrow religious confines by the underlying economic tensions of the time. They were eventually crushed. [12], To the degree that other classes, such as the bourgeoisie,[14] might gain from the centralization of the economy and the elimination of the lesser nobles' territorial controls on manufacture and trade,[15] the princes might unite with the burghers on the issue. [15] This was even the case in his native Saxony and was possibly a reflection of the fact that he had felt the revolt had weakened his position. In addition, the knights' relationships with the patricians in the towns was strained by the debts owed by the knights. Luther was deeply influenced by the teachings of St Augustine and believed that all legitimate authority should be obeyed, and it was a Christian’s duty to do so. In the early 16th century, no peasant could hunt, fish, or chop wood freely, as they previously had, because the lords had recently taken control of common lands. The first, spontaneous (or popular) and localized revolt drew on traditional liberties and old law for its legitimacy. They were often persecuted not only by Catholics but also by Lutherans. While inspired in part by the Reformation, the uprising forced the movement into the hands of the landed nobility and elites in the German-speaking lands. The peasants, on the other hand, had poor, if any, equipment, and many had neither experience nor training. ... which the most important German reformer, Martin Luther, was completely opposed to. They seem to have used their mounted men for reconnaissance. Within days, 1,200 peasants had gathered, created a list of grievances, elected officers, and raised a banner. Keeping the bulk of his army facing Leipheim, he dispatched detachments of horse from Hesse and Ulm across the Danube to Elchingen. [28], Haufen were formed from companies, typically 500 men per company, subdivided into platoons of 10 to 15 peasants each. The bands varied in size, depending on the number of insurgents available in the locality. Trains (tross) were sometimes larger than the fighting force, but they required organization and discipline. The Peasants soon became radicalized, and the largest band was led by the radical preacher Thomas Muntzer. Both sides perpetrated atrocities. [56], At Königshofen, on 2 June, peasant commanders Wendel Hipfler and Georg Metzler had set camp outside of town. By nightfall only 600 peasants remained. [28], The peasant army was governed by a so-called ring, in which peasants gathered in a circle to debate tactics, troop movements, alliances, and the distribution of spoils. The Protestant Reformation, begun with Martin Luther’s posting of The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517, rapidly escalated into an evangelical reform movement that transformed European Christianity. Initially, Luther had seemed to promise a Church that was more liberal, but after the Peasant’s War, it became noticeably more conservative and even reactionary. No revenues collected were subject to formal administration, and civic accounts were neglected. The plebeians comprised the new class of urban workers, journeymen, and peddlers. It is just as one must kill a mad dog; if you do not strike him he will strike you. On 15 May joint troops of Landgraf Philipp I of Hesse and George, Duke of Saxony defeated the peasants under Müntzer near Frankenhausen in the County of Schwarzburg. Luther only wanted people to see the Catholic Church as something that was not sanctioned by God. Each company, in turn, was composed of smaller units of 10 to 12 men, known as rotte. By maintaining the remnants of the ancient law which legitimized their own rule, they not only elevated their wealth and position in the empire through the confiscation of all property and revenues, but increased their power over their peasant subjects. The landsknechte clothed, armed and fed themselves, and were accompanied by a sizable train of sutlers, bakers, washerwomen, prostitutes and sundry individuals with occupations needed to sustain the force. One view is that the origins of the German Peasants' War lay partly in the unusual power dynamic caused by the agricultural and economic dynamism of the previous decades. Officers were usually elected, particularly the supreme commander and the leutinger. The Peasants’ War was not the first revolt against the authority of nobles in Germany, but it was the most widespread the region had seen so far. They chose to rob the nobility's houses and burn them down. We shall see the classes and fractions of classes which everywhere betrayed 1848 and 1849 in the role of traitors, though on a lower level of development, already in 1525. The Result of the Peasants Revolt. The German Peasants' War was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising prior to the French Revolution of 1789. The south-east of England had always been its wealthiest region, and as a result there were very few unpaid serfs there and the peasants enjoyed a better quality of life than elsewhere. The professional army of the Swabian League and similar military alliances throughout Germany soon had the upper hand. 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